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Hái ra tiền từ vỏ trấu

Hái ra tiền từ vỏ trấu

Sản xuất củi mùn cưa tại Công ty Trách nhiệm Hữu hạn Bách Phương.

Tận dụng vỏ trấu làm nhiên liệu đốt sẽ tiết kiệm chi phí tiêu thụ dầu.
 Trữ lượng phế phẩm nông nghiệp

Cuối cùng dự án nhà máy nhiệt điện đốt bằng vỏ trấu đầu tiên ở việt nam đã được khởi công xây dựng trên diện tích 9 ha tại Long Mỹ (tỉnh Hậu Giang) với tổng vốn đầu tư khoảng 31 triệu USD. Sự kiện trên cho thấy các dự án phát triển năng lượng sạch từ phế phẩm nông nghiệp như vỏ trấu, mùn cưa, bã mía… (còn gọi là nhiên liệu sinh khối) đã bắt đầu được quan tâm một cách đúng mức.

Điều này có ý nghĩa quan trọng vì Việt Nam là một nước có lượng phế phẩm nông nghiệp lớn. Tận dụng triệt để các phế phẩm này không chỉ giúp giảm được ô nhiễm môi trường sau thu hoạch mà còn có thể phát triển nguồn năng lượng mới thay thế cho nhiên liệu, xăng dầu, góp phần đảm bảo an ninh năng lượng quốc gia.

Năng lượng từ vỏ trấu

Dự án nhà máy nhiệt điện đốt bằng vỏ trấu đầu tiên của Việt Nam vừa được khởi công tại Long Mỹ là dự án đầu tiên nằm trong kế hoạch xây dựng 20 nhà máy nhiệt điện đốt bằng vỏ trấu trên cả nước. Trong đó, đồng bằng sông Cửu Long được đầu tư xây dựng tại 5 tỉnh thành gồm An Giang, Kiên Giang, Hậu Giang, Đồng Tháp và Cần Thơ với tổng công suất 200 MW. Mỗi ngày, nhà máy nhiệt điện đốt bằng vỏ trấu sẽ tiêu thụ 250 tấn trấu. Chất thải của nhà máy sẽ tiếp tục được sử dụng để sản xuất xi măng cao cấp và chất liệu cách điện.

Đặt “cứ điểm” ở đồng bằng sông Cửu Long là có lý do. Đây là vùng sản xuất lúa lớn nhất nước, hằng năm thải ra trên 5 triệu tấn trấu. Thông thường, theo công nghệ chế biến sau thu hoạch, vỏ trấu được thải trực tiếp ra tự nhiên, đi vào kênh rạch gây ô nhiễm môi trường. Do đó, khi nhà máy đi vào hoạt động sẽ tiêu thụ được lượng lớn vỏ trấu, đồng thời góp phần bổ sung nguồn điện quốc gia, bảo vệ môi trường và giải quyết việc làm cho người dân địa phương.

Cũng cần nói thêm, trước đây Việt Nam cũng có nhiều dự án nhiệt điện sử dụng rác thải trong quá trình sản xuất mía đường như nhà máy nhiệt điện Lam Sơn có công suất 12,5 MW, tận dụng nguyên liệu từ quá trình sản xuất mía đường của Công ty Mía đường Lam Sơn. Tuy nhiên, một dự án có quy mô lớn như nhà máy nhiệt điện đốt bằng vỏ trấu ở Long Mỹ là lần đầu tiên.

Không chỉ vỏ trấu, bã mía mà mùn cưa cũng đã trở thành nhiên liệu thay thế cho nhiên liệu hóa thạch sử dụng trong sản xuất công nghiệp. Trong lò hơi công nghiệp, chẳng hạn, việc từ than đá chuyển sang dùng củi mùn cưa có thể giúp giảm chi phí lên đến hơn 50%. Còn từ dầu FO chuyển sang củi ép mùn cưa thì chi phí có thể giảm đến 70%. Nếu sản xuất 2,5 tấn mùn cưa thành nhiên liệu đốt trong nước, Việt Nam sẽ giảm nhập khẩu khoảng 1.000 lít dầu, theo Hội Mỹ nghệ và Chế biến gỗ TP.HCM (Hawa).

Mùn cưa xuất ngoại

Nhu cầu về nhiên liệu sinh khối từ các nước châu Âu, Nhật gia tăng đã có tác động không nhỏ đến thị trường này tại Việt Nam, biến mùn cưa, vỏ trấu, bã mía… trở thành những mặt hàng có giá trị. Theo Công ty Trách nhiệm Hữu hạn Nenryo, vốn kinh doanh mùn cưa từ nhiều năm nay, trong số các dạng năng lượng sạch dành cho nhiệt điện, vỏ trấu cũng như mùn cưa là nguyên liệu có giá trị cao và lại có rất nhiều tại Việt Nam. Số liệu của công ty này cho thấy ở Việt Nam lượng phụ phẩm như vỏ trấu là 6,8 triệu tấn/năm, phụ phẩm mùn cưa là 5,8 triệu tấn/năm. Nhà máy của Nenryo phải huy động nhiều đầu mối thu gom mùn cưa từ Bình Dương, Đồng Nai, Đắk Lắk… Giá thu mua mùn cưa đã chế biến khoảng 500.000 đồng/tấn, nhưng sau khi xử lý nén thành khối kích thước theo yêu cầu của khách hàng và đóng gói thì có thể xuất đi với giá FOB lên tới 250-270 USD/tấn (khoảng 5,4-5,8 triệu đồng/tấn).

Việt Nam và các nước trong khu vực đều xuất khẩu vào châu Âu và Nhật. Đây là những thị trường có nhu cầu rất lớn về nhiên liệu sinh khối, bởi họ đã đổi mới công nghệ và bắt đầu lộ trình sử dụng năng lượng bền vững. Công ty Phúc Nguyên xuất hàng vào thị trường Đức, Ba Lan, Hà Lan… mỗi tháng khoảng vài ngàn tấn.

Tiềm năng xuất khẩu là rất lớn, nhưng rào cản cũng không ít. Theo giá tham chiếu của châu Âu thì giá bán nguyên liệu phải có đủ chứng chỉ FSC (chứng chỉ trồng, quản lý và khai thác rừng bền vững). Các nhà cung cấp ở Việt Nam lại hầu hết không có chứng chỉ này, nên giá xuất không được cao (giá 250-270 USD/tấn nói trên là giá được áp dụng đối với các sản phẩm chưa có chứng chỉ FSC). Giả sử nếu xuất một lượng lớn mùn cưa từ 10.000 tấn/tháng sang Nhật, doanh nghiệp phải xuất trình được chứng chỉ FSC. Nếu có chứng chỉ trồng rừng và đạt các tiêu chuẩn liên quan đến môi trường như các tiêu chuẩn của dự án cơ chế phát triển sạch (CDM) thì giá mùn cưa có thể lên đến 400-500 USD/tấn, thay vì chỉ 250-270 USD/tấn.

Với những rào cản về kỹ thuật cũng như các tiêu chuẩn về môi trường nói trên, Việt Nam mới chỉ cung cấp 600.000 tấn/năm để xuất khẩu ra nước ngoài. Do đó, để có được chứng chỉ FSC, một số nhà đầu tư trong đó có Gỗ Trường Thành, Hùng Đại Dương sẵn sàng bỏ ra hàng trăm ngàn đến cả triệu USD để hợp tác với các nhà trồng rừng tại Việt Nam. Đây là một tín hiệu tích cực cho thị trường phế phẩm nông nghiệp Việt Nam. 

Tác giả

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