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Doanh nghiệp Nhà nước phải “buông” bất động sản

Doanh nghiệp Nhà nước phải “buông” bất động sản

Kịch bản thoái vốn và chuyển giao sẽ ra sao, khi mà nhiều dự án của các doanh nghiệp này nằm ở vị trí trung tâm và có giá trị khá lớn?

Thời bất động sản còn sốt, hầu như doanh nghiệp nhà nước nào ở TP.HCM cũng đầu tư dự án. Tuy nhiên, Ủy ban Nhân dân TP.HCM vừa qua đã quyết định buộc doanh nghiệp 100% vốn sở hữu của thành phố không được đầu tư vào lĩnh vực bất động sản, trừ doanh nghiệp có ngành nghề kinh doanh liên quan. Kịch bản thoái vốn và chuyển giao sẽ ra sao, khi mà nhiều dự án của các doanh nghiệp này hiện nằm ở vị trí trung tâm và có giá trị khá lớn?

Điển hình như Công ty Dệt may Gia Định (Giditex). Một số dự án nổi bật của doanh nghiệp như khách sạn 5 sao tại Bến Chương Dương có tổng diện tích hơn 5.800 m2 tại Q.1 hay Trung tâm biểu diễn thời trang và căn hộ cho thuê, số 7 Trường Chinh gần 70.000m2. Theo kế hoạch, Giditex phải thoái vốn khỏi các dự án này hoặc chuyển giao cho chủ đầu tư khác.

Trong năm 2014-2015, có 15 tổng công ty thuộc TP.HCM phải thoái 3.817 tỉ đồng vốn đầu tư ngoài ngành khỏi bất động sản. Năm ngoái, các công ty này chỉ mới thoái được khoảng 15% số vốn này. Như vậy, lộ trình thoái toàn bộ số vốn còn lại bắt buộc phải hoàn thành trong năm nay.

Trước tình trạng chậm thoái vốn ngoài ngành của các doanh nghiệp thành phố, lãnh đạo Ủy ban Nhân dân TP.HCM khẳng định trường hợp nào thực hiện quá chậm và không đúng với lộ trình thì có thể bị áp dụng chế tài xử lý.

Tuy nhiên, trong giai đoạn bất động sản chưa khởi sắc như mong muốn, việc thẩm định giá theo giá thị trường để thoái vốn hoàn toàn không có lợi cho các chủ đầu tư. Vì thế, việc bảo toàn nguốn vốn đầu tư của Nhà nước chính là bài toán khó cho các doanh nghiệp hiện nay.

Trong bối cảnh đó, có 2 phương án thoái vốn các doanh nghiệp nhà nước tại TP.HCM có thể thực hiện. Một là chuyển giao cho đơn vị khác thuộc thành phố hoạt động chuyên về lĩnh vực bất động sản. Phương án này sẽ giúp vốn nhà nước “lọt sàng xuống nia” không thất thoát. Phương án thứ 2 là chuyển giao dự án về Trung tâm Phát triển Quỹ đất Thành phố, tạo quỹ đất sạch phát triển dự án theo thủ tục và quy hoạch.

Thực tế, nhiều khả năng sẽ chẳng có doanh nghiệp nào chuyển dự án về cho Trung tâm Phát triển Quỹ đất Thành phố. Thế nên, thoái vốn theo hình thức chuyển giao cho doanh nghiệp hoạt động chuyên trong lĩnh vực bất động sản của thành phố là một kịch bản rất khả thi. Các doanh nghiệp chuyên kinh doanh bất động sản sẽ có chuyên môn sâu hơn để đầu tư phát triển dự án. Cả việc chuyển giao dự án với giá trị lớn hơn giá trị mà chủ đầu tư đã thực hiện vẫn được bên tiếp nhận đồng ý. Vấn đề chỉ là các chủ đầu tư có muốn giao hay không mà thôi.

Về mặt xác định giá trị dự án và khu đất, con số này được tính toán trên cơ sở khung giá nhà nước hoặc thẩm định giá có tính thêm giá trị vị trí thương quyền. Chính vì vậy, dù thị trường bất động sản có xuống đáy, các chủ đầu tư vẫn không lỗ khi xác định giá trị dự án tại thời điểm chuyển giao. Dựa trên yếu tố này, khẳng định của lãnh đạo TP.HCM về việc thoái vốn ngoài ngành đối với lĩnh vực bất động sản chỉ do làm chậm chứ không khó, hoàn toàn là do chính doanh nghiệp quyết định là có cơ sở.

 

Tác giả

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